Students identified as having dyslexia typically experience primary difficulties in phonological awareness, including phonemic awareness and manipulation, single-word reading, reading fluency, and spelling. Consequences may include difficulties in reading comprehension and/or written expression. These difficulties in phonological awareness are unexpected for the student’s age and educational level and are not primarily the result of language difference factors. Additionally, there is often a family history of similar difficulties.
The following are the primary reading/spelling characteristics of dyslexia:
- Difficulty reading words in isolation
- Difficulty accurately decoding unfamiliar words
- Difficulty with oral reading (slow, inaccurate, or labored)
- Difficulty spelling
The International Dyslexia Association defines “dyslexia” in the following way:
Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and / or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.
The reading and spelling characteristics of dyslexia are most often associated with the following:
- Segmenting, blending, and manipulating sounds in words (phonemic awareness)
- Learning the names of letters and their associated sounds
- Holding information about sounds and words in memory (phonological memory)
- Rapidly recalling the names of familiar objects, colors, or letters of the alphabet (rapid naming)
Consequences of dyslexia may include the following:
- Variable difficulty with aspects of reading comprehension
- Variable difficulty with aspects of written language
- Limited vocabulary growth due to reduced reading experiences
The Talking Book Program provides free library services for Texans of any age who are blind or have a visual, physical or reading disability. Registered TBP patrons may borrow books and magazines in digital audio, Braille and large print. Visit Talking Book Program for the application. Before mailing your application, you will need to have it certified by the Dyslexia Specialist at your child's campus.
Who to Contact
At the elementary level, families should contact the campus counselor regarding dyslexia services. At the middle school level, families should contact the student services facilitator or campus counselor. At the high school level, families should contact the student services facilitator.
If you have any questions regarding the NISD Dyslexia Program, please contact Ruth Ann Beagle, M.Ed., dyslexia facilitator, via email at email@example.com or by phone at 817-698-6656.